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History and Development of TCM (II)
Addtime:2016-11-02 14:29:09 Hit:513




In the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, there appeared four great medical schools represented by Liu Wansu (1120-1200), Zhang Congzheng (1156-1228), Li Gao (1180-1251) and Zhu Zhenheng (1281-1358). Liu Wansu believed that “fire-heat” was the main cause of a variety of diseases and these diseases should be treated with drugs cold and cool in nature. So his theory was known as the “School of Cold and Cool”. Zhang Congzheng believed that all diseases were caused by exogenous pathogenic factors and advocated that pathogenic factors should be driven out by means of diaphoresis, emesis and purgation. For this reason his theory was known as the “School of Purgation”. Li Gao held that “internal impairment of the spleen and stomach would bring about various diseases” and emphasized that the most important thing in clinical treatment was to warm and invigorate the spleen and stomach. And therefore he was regarded as the founder of the “School of Reinforcing the Earth”. Zhu Zhenheng believed that “yang is usually excessive while yin is frequently deficient” and advocated the remedies of nourishing yin and reducing fire in treatment of disease. That is why his theory was known as the “School of Nourish Yin”.

 



Li Shizhen (1518-1593), a famous physician and pharmacologist in the Ming Dynasty, wrote Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica). This book consists of 52 volumes in which 1892 medicinal herbs, over 11000 prescriptions and 1100 illustrations of medicinal items are presented. It deals with the knowledge of many subjects, such as botany, zoology, mineralogy, physics, astronomy and meteorology. This book is recognized as a monumental work in the history of Chinese material medica and a great contribution to the development of pharmacology in the world.

 

Owing to the wanton massacre of infectious diseases, there emerged the School of Warm Diseases in the Ming and Qing Dynasties dealing with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of warm diseases.

 

After the opium War (1840-1842) Western medicine began to disseminate in China, exerting certain influence on the practice of TCM. Some Chinese medical experts tried to combine TCM with Western medicine. Yixve Zhongzhong Canxi Lu (Records of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Combination) written by Zhang Xichun is a good representative monogragh in this field.

 

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, great progress in theoretical study and clinical research of TCM has been made with modern scientific methods and advanced technology by doctors, researchers and other scientists.

 


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